Barry Newman's Blog

May 10, 2010

The Heart in the New Testament (Full Series PDF)

Filed under: dianoia,kardia,nous,phroneo,The Heart — barrynewman @ 10:33 pm

Here is the full series

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May 6, 2010

“The Heart” in the New Testament (part (VIII)

Filed under: kardia,nous,phroneo,The Heart — barrynewman @ 10:23 pm

Other Words Serving a Similar Function to Kardia (cont.)

Nous or a cognate occurs 24 times in the New Testament.  On 3 occasions reference is made to the nous – mind of the Lord or Christ.  Using the categorisation scheme applied to kardia, 6 instances would belong to each of the categories: “The wise/understanding/knowing heart” and “The unrighteous heart”, 2 to each of “The righteous heart” and “The noble heart” and 1 each to “The heart able to be influenced”, “The heart able to contain or receive”, “The heart set towards God”, “The internally active heart” and “The wise heart”.  As with dianoia, although the number of instances is small, from its usage in the New Testament, nous operates in a similar manner to kardia.

Phroneo belongs to a large group, members of which include phren, phronema, phronesis, homophron, phrenapates, tapeinophron, sophroneo, phronimos and aphron.  Phren is found twice in the New Testament and relates to one’s thinking.  Phronema is found 4 times and on each occasion seems to refer to something like “thinking/attitude/disposition”. Phronesis occurs twice and seems to refer to something like “ways of thinking”. Homophron occurs once and refers to having the same attitude.  Phrenapates occurs once and refers to deceivers of the intellect/mind, i.e. implying that the phrenapates can be influenced.  Tapeinophron occurs once and refers to the humble mind. Sophroneo occurs 6 times and refers to the person of sober mind. Phronimos is found 14 times and refers to the prudent person and aphron, which occurs 11 times, refers to the fool.  The first four members of the class could be classified as “The internally active heart” and the fifth as “The heart that can be influenced”. To this extent, these members of the group operate in ways consistent with kardiaSophroneo, phronimos and aphron refer to a person having certain mental qualities and it is doubtful that they be viewed as operating in a way similar to kardia. Phroneo itself occurs 31 times.  In 4 instances it is part of a compound word meaning high-minded or sober-minded.  In 22 instances the verbal aspect dominates and refers to the act of thinking or paying attention to. Each of the remaining 5 cases can be understood as referring to something like: “thinking/attitude/disposition.  That in the Septuagint phrenon occurs 6 of its 7 times in the one book – Proverbs may suggest that phroneo is quite limited as a word that can operate in a similar way to lev/levav or kardia.

Psuche was examined ain an earlier blog series.

Other words were examined such as: nephros, nouneches, nouthesia, noutheteo, ennoia, epinoia, noema, noeo, asunetos, sunetos, sunesis, suniemi, sophronizo, sophronismos, tapeinophrosune, mimneskomai, epanomimnesko, hupomimnesko and anamimnesko

Nephros occurs once and in close association with kardia in the phrase (the Son of God) who searches nephrous and kardias.  It seems to have the same role as kardia – it can be searched and known.  Ennoia occurs once and seems to mean something like thinking/attitude/disposition in one instance.  In the other it is associated with kardia but in terms of what is found in the heart.  Noeo occurs 14 times but its meaning of “to understand” dominates in its contexts with one instance having a reference to a passage from Isaiah where the people of God are to be prevented from nohwsin with their hearts. Suniemi occurs 27 times but similarly its meaning of “to understand” dominates its contexts with one reference being to the same passage from Isaiah inclusive of the mention of heart.  There would appear to be no value in referring to any of the other words.

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